Physico-Chemical Properties and Food Applications
By Hafiz Abubakar
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal in many parts of Africa, Asia and the semi arid tropics worldwide. Despite the prominent role of sorghum in the diet of many people globally, the technology for processing these grains into consumable products is still far from adequate compared with other major cereal grains such as wheat, maize and rice. The rather low capacity of the traditional processing methods limits the quantity of sorghum products on the market. Commercialization of sorghum products has never been adequately established, and food production from sorghum remains largely the responsibility of individual households. One of the greatest problems associated with sorghum use is the tendency of the grain to produce “grittily textured” commercial products unless properly processed. A substantial part of the obstacles experienced with sorghum processing revolves around the thermal behavior of the starch component. In cereal products, the degree of gelatinization of the starch granules directly controls the resulting textural changes in the food product. This book intends to provide a comprehensive resource on the structure, gelatinization phenomena and rheological properties of sorghum starch. It will be a valuable material for postgraduate students of Food Science and Technology, Nutrition, Biochemistry and Food Biotechnology. It will also serve as a reference material for researchers in Starch and Cereal chemistry, Polymer chemistry, Food and Nutritional biochemistry.
The first two chapters deal with the origin, distribution and production of sorghum and present its food uses and other industrial applications. Chapter 3 describes the fine structure of the starch granule with emphasis on the sorghum starch, including minor and surface components. Chapter 4 dwells comprehensively on the chemistry of the starch gelatinization phenomena. Chapter 5 describes the principles and procedure of some selected starch evaluation techniques. Chapter 6 and 7 describe the physico-chemical properties of sorghum starch, wheat and maize in a comparative analytical style. Chapter 8 gives specific attention to the Differential scanning calorimetric behavior of sorghum starch and a comparative analysis with wheat and maize. Chapter 9 deals with the phenomena of starch gelation and the rheology of starch gels. A comparative dynamic rheological property of sorghum, wheat and maize starches is also extensively discussed. Finally, Chapter 10 concludes with the principles and applications of extrusion technology in starch transformation.